p53 target genes

p53 target genes

Recent genome-wide analyses and meta-analyses of genome-wide datasets of p53 DNA-binding and gene regulation show that p53 is a direct activator of a limited number of genes compared to the number of putative response-elements identified genome-wide. They also provide evidence that p53 is not a direct repressor of genes.



Census p53 target genes by Fischer (2017)

CDKN1A ABCA12 NTPCR PGPEP1 RNF19B LCE1E EPN3 SCN4B ARVCF FCHO2 PANK2 TMEM8B
RRM2B ANKRA2 ORAI3 PLCL2 SAC3D1 LIMK2 FBXO32 SCRIB BHLHE40 FCHSD2 PAQR7 TP53
MDM2 CCNG1 PRKAB1 PMAIP1 SYTL1 LRP1 FHL2 SEMA3B BMP7 FLRT2 PCBP4 TP53I11
SUSD6 CYFIP2 PTP4A1 PRDM1 TNFRSF10A MCC HES2 SLC25A45 BORCS7 GBE1 PERP TRAK1
GDF15 DRAM1 SESN2 RAP2B TNFRSF10D NUPR1 KCNN4 SLC44A5 BTBD10 GPC1 PLLP TRIP6
BTG2 FBXO22 SLC30A1 RRAD TSPAN11 PARD6G KLHDC7A SLC4A11 BTG3 HES1 POU3F1 TSGA10
DDB2 ISCU SPATA18 ZNF219 VWCE PHPT1 LMNA SLC9A1 C17orf89 HRAS PPFIBP1 UNC5B
GADD45A PHLDA3 TGFA ZNF337 DDIT4 PIDD1 MLF2 STAT3 CAPN2 HSD17B3 PPM1J UQCC1
PLK3 SERPINB5 TLR3 ACTA2 RAD51C PML MR1 STK17A CASP6 ICOSLG PPP4R3A VDR
TIGAR SERTAD1 TM7SF3 EDN2 SERPINE1 PTPRE MYO6 STX6 CATSPERG IGFBP7 PTAFR YPEL3
RPS27L TRAF4 TMEM68 ALOX5 TNFAIP8 PVRL4 NEFL TP73 CAV1 IL1B RALGDS ZNF195
TNFRSF10B TRIM22 WDR63 ARHGEF3 TSKU RETSAT NKAIN4 TRIM32 CCNK ISYNA1 RBM38 ZNF385A
TRIAP1 CES2 ZNF561 CERS5 PCNA REV3L PCLO TRIM38 CFLAR JAG1 RGL1 ZNF488
ZMAT3 CMBL ZNF79 DDR1 ACYP2 RNASE7 PDE4C TRIM5 CGB7 KRT8 RGS20
BAX FBXW7 ASCC3 DHRS3 APAF1 SFN PGAP1 TYMSOS CHST14 KSR1 RHOC
PGF HSPA4L ACER2 DUSP14 APOBEC3H TNFRSF10C PLCXD2 AKAP9 COBLL1 LACC1 RPS19
POLH KITLG ANXA4 E2F7 BCL2L1 TRIML2 PLEKHF1 CCDC51 CPEB2 LPXN SARS
PPM1D SLC12A4 APOBEC3C EPS8L2 BCL6 VCAN PLTP CDH8 CPSF4 LRPAP1 SCIN
SULF2 ATF3 ASTN2 FAM210B BLCAP ADCK3 PLXNB1 DUSP11 DNAJB2 MFAP3L SCN3B
XPC BBC3 CD82 GLS2 C17orf82 AK3 PLXNB2 GCC2 DOCK8 MKNK2 SDC4
AEN CCDC90B CDIP1 GPX1 COL7A1 ALDH1A3 PRKAB2 METTL8 DUSP5 MON2 SDPR
BLOC1S2 DYRK3 CPE GRHL3 CPEB4 BBS2 PRKX PPP1R3C DUSP7 MRPL49 SMAD3
FAS EDA2R CSF1 HHAT CSNK1G1 BTG1 PRODH STEAP3 EBI3 MYBPHL SNX2
GPR87 EPHA2 DCP1B IGDCC4 DGKA CEL PTPRU ABHD4 EFNB1 MYLK SOCS4
NINJ1 FAM13C ENC1 IKBIP FAM49A CLCA2 RGMA ABTB2 EI24 MYOF TAB3
PLK2 FAM198B FOSL1 LAPTM5 FAM84B CLDN1 RGS16 ADGRG1 EML2 NFKBIA TCAIM
PSTPIP2 FAM212B FUCA1 MAST4 GNAI1 CLP1 RND3 AIFM2 ENPP2 NHLH2 TEP1
SESN1 FDXR IER5 MICALL1 INPP1 CROT RNF144B AMOTL1 ETV7 NLRP1 TET2
TP53I3 LIF PADI4 NOTCH1 ITGA3 CYP4F3 S100A2 AMZ2 FAM196A NYNRIN TEX9
TP53INP1 NADSYN1 PANK1 RABGGTA KRT15 DAPK1 SCN2A ARC FAM98C P3H2 TMEM63B


p53 responsive-elements

The canonical p53 response-element (p53-RE) consists of two copies of the palindromic half-site RRRCWWGYYY where each p53 monomer binds five nucleotides (R = purine, W= A or T and Y = pyrimidine).


A list of putative canonical and non-canonical p53 REs identified in the human genome by Tebaldi et al., 2017 can be downloaded here.


Below are some example of p53RE:

p53-RE name Gene/Protein activity Tetrameric p53-RE sequence (5’→3’)(a)(b) p53-RE location PubMed
PG13   13 copies of p53CON   1588974
14-3-3s Cell cycle arrest AGGCATGTgC cAcCATGCCC ­ 2,5 kb 9659898
    GtAGCAttAGCCC AGACATGTCC ­ 1,8 kb 9659898
BAX Apoptosis tcACAAGTTaGAGACAAGCCT -113 to -93 10559267
    AGACAAGCCT GGGCgTGggC -102 to -83 10559267
    AGACAAGCCTGGGCGTGGGCTAtaTT -102 to -77 10559267
BTG2 Cell cycle arrest AGtCcgGgCAGAGcCcgagCa -122 to -74 11814693
CD95-Fas Apoptosis GGACAAGCCC tGACAAGCCa intron 1 9841917
GADD45 Cell cycle arrest GAACATGTCT AAGCATGCTg intron 3 8226988
IGF-BP3-boxA Apoptosis AAACAAGCCaCcAACATGCTT intron 1 7566179
IGF-BP3-boxB   GGGCAAGaCC tGcCAAGCCT intron 2 7566179
KILLER/DR5 Apoptosis GGGCATGTCC GGGCAAGaCg intron 1 10777207
MDM2 p53 regulation GGtCAAGTTC AGACAcGTCC intron 1 7651818
    AGttAAGTCC tGACTTGTCT intron 1 7651818
NOXA Apoptosis AGGCTTGCCC cGGCAAGTTg -174 to
-155
10807576
P53DINP1 Regulation of p53-dependent apoptosis GAACTTGggg GAACATGTTT intron 2 11511362
P53R2 DNA repair tGACATGCCC AGGCATGTCT intron 1 10716435
P53RFP p21WAF1 regulation AGACAgGTCC tGACAAGCag -157 to
-137
12853982
SESN1 Oxydative metabolism GGACAAGTCT ccACAAGTTC intron 2 9926927
PCNA DNA repair / Replication GAACAAGTCC GGGCATaTgT -236 to
-217
8570655
PIDD Apoptosis AGGCcTGCCTGCGTGCTGGGACATGTCT -54 to -26 10973264
PIG3 Apoptosis cAGCTTGCCC AccCATGCTC -328 to
-308
9305847
PUMA Apoptosis ctcCTTGCCTTGGGCTAGgCC -230 11463391
    ctGCAAGTCC tGACTTGTCC -144 11463391
RGC Ribosomes synthesis GGACTTGCCT GGcCTTGCCT NA 2047879
WAF15’ Cell cycle arrest GAACATGTCC cAACATGTTg -2.3 kb 8242752
WAF1 3’   GAAgAAGaCT GGGCATGTCT -1.4 kb 9679054

(a) Non-functional putative p53-RE are indicated in italic.
(b) Bases that do not correspond to the p53-RE consensus sequence are in lowercase.